Arthropods, 2018, 7(1): 1-10
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A review of imidacloprid toxicity in coccinellids

Afifa Amjad1, Iqra Azam1, Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar1, Muhammad Faheem Malik2, Aqsa Sattar1
1University of Gujrat, Sub-Campus Narowal, Narowal, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan

Received 22 October 2017;Accepted 30 November 2017;Published 1 March 2018

Insecticides are the pesticides that are used to deter pests as they affect their nervous system, respiration, growth and by harming their exoskeletons. Meanwhile, they are affecting the non-target natural enemies such as ladybirds that are frequently used in IPM as biological control agents. Insecticides were presumed to be ineffective for Coccinellids earlier, but research studies have shown that these insecticides severely effect physiological and behavioural patterns of natural predators leading them to death. A best-selling insecticide, Imidacloprid: a neurotoxin belonging to neonicotinoid affects the behaviour and performance of natural enemies by effecting their fecundity, egg hatching, developmental time, growth rate, locomotion, survival rate and causing mortality of various Coccinellids including: Hippodamia undecimnotata, Coccinella septempunctata, Harmonia axyridis, Coleomegilla maculata, Hippodamia convergens, Serangium japonicum, Hippodamia variegata, Coccinella novemnotata.

Keywords insecticides;imidacloprid;neurotoxin;coccinellids;mortality;fecundity.

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