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Computational Ecology and Software, 2016, 6(1): 1-11
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Article

Evaluating the developmental instability of Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766) from Lower Agusan River Basin, Butuan City, Philippines using fluctuating asymmetry

J.H. Jumawan1, J.P.B. Velasco1, A.O. Mondejar1, M.B. Madelozo1, L.M.C. Segovia1, K.C.T. Necesito1, J.R.U. Licayan1, J.C. Jumawan1, M.A.J. Torres3, E.A. Requieron2
1Biology Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Caraga State University - Main Campus, Ampayon, Butuan City 8600, Philippines
2Science Department, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Mindanao States University - General Santos City Campus, 9500 Fatima, General Santos City, Philippines
3Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines

Received 13 October 2015;Accepted 20 November 2015;Published online 1 March 2016
IAEES

Abstract
Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA) is the most frequently used tool for measuring developmental instability. It is used as a measure of ecological stress and a sign of developmental stability of organisms. The study evaluatedthe use of FA in assessing the condition of Scatophagus argus in lower Agusan river basin. High FA values would indicate exposure to polluted aquatic environment. The study selected S. argus because of its observed susceptibility to aquatic pollution in the area. There were a total of 60 samples collected (30 males and 30 females). Using Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) series, landmark analyzes were obtained and subjected to Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE) software. Procrustes ANOVA showed high significant differences (P<0.0001) to the three measured factors (individuals, sides and interaction of individuals and sides). Similar findings were observed to both male and females samples suggesting high FA values. The principal component analysis was implemented to determine the affected landmarks. More landmarks were affected in males (11 landmarks) than in females (5 landmarks). Deformation grids and histograms were used to display the ordination of affected landmarks. The data would be important to environmental planners in the management of lower Agusan river basin. Scores display a high percentage FA of female (70.94%) and male (78.67%). In the female samples, PC 1 (33.26%) and PC2 (13.53%) were found to have significant variations affecting the rostral tip of premaxilla, posterior extremities, and the lateral profile. In the male samples, PC 1 (35.63%) and PC 2 (14.24%) have the same affected landmarks as in females but have greater variations. Significant levels of FA in the fish morphology are the result of its adaptive mechanism to cope up with the stressed environment. The dorsal cephalic region and the pectoral fin were the most affected landmarks and may be used to determine the effect of stressors to the fish since these areas were involved in fish mobility. Thus, the high FA in the body shapes of spotted scat suggests that ecological health in the area is in not good standing.

Keywords fluctuating asymmetry;developmental instability;Scatophagus argus;lower Agusan river basin.



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