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Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2014, 4(4): 185-193
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Article

Optimization of phytoremediation in Cd- contaminated soil by using Taguchi method in Spinacia oleracea

Shirin Jahanbakhshi1, Mohammad Reza Rezaei1, Mohammad Hassan Sayyari-Zahan2
1University of Birjand, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Environment, Birjand, Iran
2Assistant Prof, University of Birjand, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, Birjand, Iran

Received 10 June 2014;Accepted 15 July 2014;Published online 1 December 2014
IAEES

Abstract
Phytoremediation is an environmental friendly technique to the cleanup of polluted soils, which combines the disciplines of plant, soil and microbiology. In this study, four factors including: cow manure, compost, urea fertilizer and Cd-resistant bacteria with three different levels in soils contaminated with cadmium using 50 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O) were used to optimize of phytoremediation by Spinacia oleracea. Taguchi method has been used for experimental design. Results showed that significant factors in the order of importance were: cow manure, Cd- resistant batteries, urea fertilizer and compost. The optimum conditions for the selected levels were inoculate three types of bacteria (CC3, CC4, CC5), compost = 10 (g kg-1), urea fertilizer = 0.05 (g kg-1) and cow manure = 40 (g kg-1). The performance of` these conditions were estimated at 257.27 (mg kg-1). Cow manure is the most contribution to efficiency of phytoremediation in Spinacia oleracea.

Keywords optimization;Spinacia oleracea;fertilizer;resistance bacteria;cadmium.



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