Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2022, 12(2): 99-112
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Effects of biological fertilizers, EDTA chelate, urban compost and biochar on corn root remediation

Sadegh Bahamin1, Abbas Maleki2, Javad Dawoudian3, Behrouz Khalil Tahmaseb4, Shohreh Azizi5,6, Shamsolah Asgari7
1Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran
3College of Natural Resources and Environmental Planning, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran
4Plant Protection Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Jiroft, Iran
5UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, Pretoria, South Africa
6Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape, South Africa
7Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Department, Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran

Received 8 January 2022;Accepted 15 February 2022;Published 1 June 2022

This study was carried out based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Ilam (Iran) under greenhouse conditions in 2019. This design includes biological fertilizer factor at two levels of inoculation and non-inoculation, mycorrhiza fungus at two levels of consumption and non-consumption, and fertilizer at four levels that include control treatment, EDTA chelate, urban compost and biochar application on the absorption of heavy metals, phytoremediation power and corn yield. In this study, the concentration of zinc, cadmium, Cadmium, nickel and chromium in the root as well as grain yield, TF indicator (transfer factor), BCF (biological aggregation factor), and BAC (biological aggregation coefficient) were measured. The data were analyzed with SAS software using Duncan's multiple range test. The highest transfer factor and BAC value were 1.82 and 1.59 respectively in the biochar treatment, mycorrhiza treatment, and bacterial inoculation, but there was no significant difference with the use of EDTA chelating agent or urban compost consumption. Furthermore, the lowest value of transfer factor and BAC were 0.59 and 0.76 respectively in the treatment of non-consumption of fertilizer levels. At different levels of control treatment (including bacterial inoculation or non-bacterial inoculation and consumption or non-consumption of mycorrhizae), BAC in the root was always lower than different levels of biochar consumption, EDTA chelating agent, and urban compost. The maximum BCF was obtained in the control treatment, compost consumption and non-bacterial inoculation at 1.2. In general, non-consuming any type of fertilizer increased this index. Moreover, the highest colonization was obtained in the biochar treatment, consumption of mycorrhiza, and bacterial inoculation at 39.7%. In this study, it was found that separate use of urban compost, especially biochar and EDTA chelating agent, as well as combination of these fertilizers with mycorrhizae and bacteria have increased the absorption of heavy elements in the roots and improved the potential of corn for phytoremediation.

Keywords mycorrhiza;urban compost;biochar;phytoremediation;biological accumulation factor.

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